Vol. 6, No. 1 (2019)
Isolation and Activity Assay of Secondary Metabolites of Aspergillus niger in-Habiting in Termite’s Queen Nest Macrotermes gilvus Hagen., on Enriched Media
The Fungus is a group of the microorganisms that produce secondary metabolites and may be changed in different media. Secondary metabolites from Aspergillus niger in habiting in termite’s queen nest Macrotermes gilvus Hagen are disappeared gradually in artificial media. It was the reason to enrich the media with termite’s queen nest. The purpose of this research was to obtain the similar secondary metabolites of A. niger as it grows in their habitat. Enrichment was done with the experimental method. It used three concentrations of nest 0.25; 0.75 and 1 g/mL Sabouraud Dextrose Agar (SDA) media. Isolation was done by chromatography method. The antibiotic activities against Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 10541 were performed by the diffusion method. Results showed that enrichment of nest 1 g/mL media gave the best growth of fungus and it obtain the similar secondary metabolites as it grows in their habitat. Three pure compounds, EG-13-31-2, EG-13-34-9, and EG-13-44-2 were obtained. Based on physicochemical data, all compounds were terpenoid class and one of them (EG-13-34-9) contain the phenolic group. All compounds have activity against P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and E. faecalis ATCC 10541 the bacteriostatic category.
Stability Indicating UPLC Method for The Degradation Study of
Mohammad N. Uddin, Md. Al-Amin, Md. Nazmul H. Mijan, Suman
UPLC stability indicating method was developed for determining ketorolac tromethamine in its degradation study at different conditions. An isocratic mobile phase composition of 60:10:30 (v/v) containing CH3OH, CH3CN and 5mM NaH2PO4 and C18 column were used at a flow rate of 0.20 mL min-1. Satisfactory retention time was found 2.13±0.05 min at 320 nm when monitored by DAD detector. Forced degradation studies of ketorolac tromethamine was also performed at the following conditions: acid and basic hydrolysis, heat (50-70°C for 1 hr), photolytic (UV and sunlight for up to 3 hr), oxidation (3% hydrogen peroxide for 1 hr). Forced degradation study revealed that ketorolac degraded significantly under thermal conditions. In 1N acid and base hydrolysis, degradation was moderately significant and comparable. It was degraded marginally in 0.1N acid-base hydrolysis which was comparable to oxidative conditions. But in photolytic condition ketorolac shows insignificant degradation. Method was also applied to pharmaceutical formulation.
Performance Evaluation of Molecularly Imprinted Polymer using Propanol as Porogen for Atenolol Recognition in Human Serum
Meilia Suherman, Ike Susanti, Driyanti Rahayu, Rimadani Pratiwi, Aliya N. Hasanah
Atenolol is a cardiovascular drug that has a narrow therapeutic index with long-term use and it’s often used as doping. Atenolol has a small concentration in human body and it’s in biological matrix (serum) so in the testing need a selective extraction so the analyte can be pra-concentration and removed from matrix. Two molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) on propanol as porogen have been made with two different methods i.e. bulk polymerization and precipitation polymerization. The polymer was made using atenolol as a template, methacrylic acid as a functional monomer, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a crosslinker. Performance evaluations showed that polymers from bulk polymerization provide better performance than polymers from precipitation polymerization when tested against standard solution. However, this sorbent has low recovery percentage after applied into serum sample and could not be used as alternative for atenolol extraction in human serum.
Antibacterial Activity of Extract and Fraction From Shitake Mushroom (Lentinula edodes) Against Acne Bacteria
Ika K. Sukmawati*, Ari Yuniarto, Widhya Alighita, Ade Z. Jamaludin
Acne is an inflammatory disease in the skin triggered by the bacteria. Acne treatment can be done by using natural materials such as shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes). The aims of this study were to determine the antibacterial activity of extracts and fractions of shiitake mushrooms with broth microdilution method, determine the value of equality of shiitake mushrooms with antibacterial comparator and determine the morphological changes of bacteria after test samples exposure with a Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The antibacterial activity conducted against Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphylococcus aureus at concentrations of 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, and 512 ppm. The best MIC value obtained in fraction of ethyl acetate and n-hexane against the test bacterium at a concentration of 256 ppm. KBM value of the n-hexane fraction against S. aureus at a concentration of 512 ppm and ethyl acetate fraction against S. aureus and S. epidermidis at a concentration of 512 ppm. Value of equality is obtained 1 mg of ethyl acetate fraction of shiitake mushrooms equivalent with 5.346 x 10-2 mg of tetracycline. SEM test results showed the presence of antibacterial activity which is indicated by a change of cell morphology, their lumps and their cell wall frown on P. acnes were exposed to ethyl acetate fraction.
Quantification of Formaldehyde Residue in Wet Noodles Marketed in Indonesia using RP-HPLC Derivatization Method
Mutakin Mutakin, Renyiska Yula, Ida Musfiroh, Nuraeni Nuraeni, Nurdjanah Azinar, and Jutti Levita
Illegal practices of formaldehyde as preservatives in wet noodles have been proven in West Java, Indonesia. Formaldehyde can cause a decrease of blood pressure, coma, acidosis, and acute renal failure. In this study we proposed a quantification method using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A simulation was carried out as comparison. This simulation comprised of formaldehyde- spiked fish then the process was continued by washing, frying, and distilling the fish in a closed-system distillation. Similar condition was applied onto wet noodles samples. Method used was RP-HPLC derivatization method based on the reaction of formaldehyde carbonyl with two different reagents DNPH (2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine) and Nash (acetyl acetone, ammonium acetate and acetic acid) reagents. Result showed that formaldehyde residue was detected and quantified in all wet noodle samples with a range of 21-59 ppm. In conclusion, this method can be used for routine analysis to control illegal practices of formaldehyde in wet noodles.