I Made Agus Gelgel Wirasuta*, Ni Komang Dewi Triastuti, Kadek Sintia Deviyanthi, Dyah Aryani Sartika, Putu Dyah Utari
Pharmacy Department, Faculty of Mathematic and Natural Science, Udayana University, Indonesia
Korespondensi : firstname.lastname@example.org (I Made Agus Gelgel Wirasuta)
Keyword : Purple sweet potato, anthocyanin, body scrub formulation
Scrub is a cosmetic product whose pri- mary function is as a body exfoliant, remove dirt, smooth the skin surface, cleanse the skin and increase body’s blood circulation1. It is also beneficial to provide skin vitamins, such as antioxidants. Antioxidant is necessary in the maintenance of skin health2, including skin freshener, skin protection from UV A and UV B exposure, as well as regeneration of healthy skin cells3. The use of scrubs is believed to be able to nourish the skin to appear more healthy natural beauty. Scrub is much needed in the spa tourism industry for beauty care products. Purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) contains high anthocyanins con- tent4, and other active compound founded in, such as: vitamin C, beta-carotene, caffeoyl- daucic acid and its derivatives are very useful for skin health5. Purple color in purple sweet potato can give high aesthetic value to the scrub.
The scrub should display stable colors during the production process until the mar- keting. The purple color of sweet potato is formed by the stability of anthocyanin con- tents. The enzymatic deactivation process ac- celerates degradation of the anthocyanin into a brownish quinon derivative6. The enzyme deactivation of purple sweet potato before the anthocyanin extraction is an important process for improving anthocyanin stability7. Enzymes deactivation involves heat, such as steam, microwave, or oven. It will be report- ed the influence of anthocyanin content due to heating pretreatment of purple sweet po- tato and the color stability after 25 days light exposer.
Materials and Methods
2.1. Materials and tools
Purple sweet potato (Ipomoea bata- tas L.), citric acid, ethanol 70%, aquadest, stearic acid, span-tween 60, cetyl alcohol, propilenglicol, lanolin, paraffin liquid, pro- pyl- and methyl- paraben, with a pharmacy degree were obtained from PT Brathachem Indonesia, sodium acetic, potassium chloride,and hydrochloride acid from Merck.
The instrumentation were used, such as standard laboratory glass ware, analytical balance (AND-Japan), oven (Binder), blander, hot plate (Cornig), sieve shaker in differ- ence size: 20, 40, 60, and 80 mesh, spectro- photometer UV-Vis (Shimadzu), magnetic stirrer, TLC-visualizer (Camag, Switzerland).
2.2. Scrub grain sweet potato preparation
Purple sweet potato is collected, sorted and washed clean. The yams were divided into 3 groups. The A and C groups were cut with a size of 1 cm cubic, the B group sliced with 0.1 cm thickness. The A group was steamed at boiling water temperature within 7 minutes, then blended and afterward dried at an oven at 70°C for 12 hours. The B group: the sliced tuber were dried in the oven at 70°C for 12 hours, and then powdered with a blender. The C group, cubical copped tubers sweet potatoes were directly blended, and then dried in an oven at 70°C for 12 hours. The 100 grams of powder sieved shaker with multi-stage sieve ranging from mesh of 20, 40, 60, and 80 for 15 minutes. The particle size distribution of the powders was calculated from the sieving results of each mesh. The water content of powder was determinate by using moisture balance.
2.3. Total anthocyanin determination
Anthocyanin present in purple sweet potato based on absorbance changing in tow difference pH values (colored at pH 1.0 and colorless at pH 4.5), while the results were expressed as equivalent of cyaniding-3-glu- coside3. Five gram powdered yam extracted with 15 mL of 70% ethanol on ultrasonic bath for 30 minutes. The 2 mL of extract was used to anthocyanin determination8.
2.4. Body scrub formulation
The base on the pre-formulation study, it found out the formula of body scrub cream consists of 10% powdered yam, 7% stearic acid, 2% span-tween, 4% cetyl alcohol, 1% propylene glycol, 5% paraffin liquidum, 5% lanoline, 0.2% methyl paraben, 0.05% propyl paraben, in add with aquadest up to 100%.The oil phase, such as paraffin, lanolin, stearic acid, cetyl alcohol, span 60, and propylparaben, is mixed, and then heated to 70 °C. Wa- ter phases, such as aquadest, propylene glycol, tween 80, and methyl-paraben are mixed and then heated to 70°C. The two phases are stirred with a mixer to form a cream base, af- ter the cream base is formed, add 10% of the sweet potato powder to it, stirred to form a homogeneous body scrub cream.
2.5. The anthocyanin stability in body scrub
The anthocyanin stability was observed from purple color changes of body scrubs. The body scrubs were placed next to the lab- oratory window for 25 days. Color changes were observed under TLC-Visualizer by us- ing white light lamp.
2.6. Body scrub evaluation
The body scrub cream was evaluated for organoleptic, pH, consistency, spreadabil- ity, irritability, washability and grittiness.
Results and Discussion
The scrub powders of the three prepara- tion methods showed in Fig. 1 (under), while the particle size distribution of these powders is presented in Fig. 1(upper). The water con- tent of powders A (the steamed tubers prepa- ration), B (the oven drying preparation), and C (direct blender preparation) was 5.718%, 5.717%, and 5.695%, respectively. The dry- ing at the oven at 70°C for 12 hours produced less than 10% moisture content. This water content meets the requirements set by the herbal pharmacopeia Indonesia.
The preparation method A provided granular particle distribution, where fine size was only 35% of the total powder. The method B and C produced fine-sized powder more than 50%. The particle size distribution of scrub powder influenced on the spreadability of body scrub cream, its stickiness, the exfoliant power, and introduced irritation. The particle size distribution of the three de- veloped scrub powder preparations consisted of micro and grain particle governed good spreadability of body scrub cream. Study of exfoliate powder of body scrub cream, which
their particle size distributed between 20 and 50 meshes, showed that the scrub with par- ticle size of 30/40 mesh has excellent skin- lifting ability. The majority particle sizes of developed scrub powder were 40 mesh, so could be predicted has good ability to remove skin dead cell.
Total anthocyanin content in scrub grains was 326.8 (mg/100 g) for A, 103.3 (mg/ 100 g) for B, and 34.4 (mg/100g) for C. Steaming sweet potatoes for 10 minutes re- duced peroxidase activity by 100%9. Steaming preparation of scrub powder could ensure inactivation of degrading enzymes and
prevent alteration of anthocyanin. The oven heating tuber governed not fully the peroxi- dase enzyme inactivation, so the anthocyanin degradation was still observed. The unheated scrub powder preparation did not involve en- zyme degradation, so that anthocyanin degra- dation occurred more rapidly than the other methods. The steaming tuber was the better scrub powder preparation method. Steamed scrub powder provided a very intensive pur- ple color, in compare to other scrub powders. The anthocyanin content in the steamed scrub powder is 10 times higher than the unheated scrub powder. The purple color intensity of the scrub powder reflected the level of its an- thocyanin content. Fig. 2 presented the body scrub creams (upper side) and the color stability test for 25 days under light exposed (under side). The evaluation of body scrub cream showed in table 1. The parameter properties of the developed body scrub creams were almost the same, exclude the purple color intensity. The purple color correlated to their total an- thocyanin content10. Oxidation degradation of anthocyanin reacted to form brown con- densation product11. Light exposed of body scrub creams for 25 days induced completely brown condensate for body scrub B and C, but not for A. It means the steamed scrub powder preparation method governed a sta- ble anthocyanin. The steam method was done at temperatures 70-90°C. The anthocyanin contents with red colour have stability at el- evated temperatures (70-90°C). The stabil- ity of putative health-promoting polyphenols of was not markedly affected by the thermal treatment7.
Steamed sweet tuber deactivated per- oxidase enzymes and increases the stability of anthocyanin purple color in the body scrub. Steaming preparation method produced pow- der, which was suitable particle distribution for body scrub cream.
1. Ganceviciene A, Liakou AI, Theodoridis A, Makrantonaki E, Zouboulis CC. Skin antiaging strategies. Dermatoendocrinology. 2012;4(3);308-19.
2. Kusriani H, Marliani L, Apriliani E. Aktivitas Antioksidan dan Tabir Surya Tongkol dan Rambut Jagung Zea Mays. Indonesian Journal of Pharmaceutical Science and Technology. 2017;4(1);10-7.
3. Abdassah M, Aryani R, Surachman E, Muchtaridi. In-vitro Assessment of Effectiveness and Photostability Avobenzone in Cream Formulations by Combination Ethyl Ascorbic acid and alpha Tocopherol Acetate. J. App Pharm Sci. 2015;5(6);70-4.
4. Islam MS, Yoshimoto M, Terahara N, Yamakawa O. Anthocyanin compositions in sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) leaves. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 2002;66(11);2483-6.
5. Mohanraj R, Sivasankar S. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas [L.] Lam) a valuable medicinal food: a review. J Med Food. 2014;17(7);733-41.
6. Oki T, Nagai S, Yoshinaga M, Nishiba Y, Suda I. Contribution of & beta;Carotene to Radical Scavenging Capacity Varies among Orange-fleshed Sweet Potato Cultivars. Food Science and Technology Research. 2006;12(2);156-60.
7. Sun H, Mu T, Xi L, Zhang M, Chen J. Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) leaves as nutritional and functional foods. Food Chem. 2014;156;380-9.
8. Cavalcanti RN, Santos DT, Meireles MAA. Non-thermal stabilization mechanisms of anthocyanins in model and food systems—An overview. Food Research International. 2011;44(2);499-509.
9. Fischer UA, Carle R, Kammerer DR. Thermal stability of anthocyanins and colourless phenolics in pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) juices and model solutions. Food Chem. 2013;138(2-3);18009.
10. Inácio MRC, de Lima KMG, Lopes VG, Pessoa JDC, Teixeira GHA. Total antho-
cyanin content determination in intactaçaí (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) and pal-
mitero-juçara (Euterpe edulis Mart.) fruit using near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) and multivariate calibration. Food Chemstry. 2013;136(3);1160-4.
11. Cevallos-Casals BA, Cisneros-Zevallos L. Stability of anthocyanin-based aque-
ous extracts of Andean purple corn andredfleshed sweet potato compared to
synthetic and natural colorants. Food Chemistry. 2004;86(1);69-77.
12. Luna-Vital D, Li Q, West L, West M, de Mejia EG. Anthocyanin condensed forms
do not affect color or chemical stability of purple corn pericarp extracts stored under different pHs. Food Chemistry. 2017;232(Supp C);639-47.
13. Patras A, Brunton NP, O’Donnell C, Tiwari BK. Effect of thermal processing on anthocyanin stability in foods; mechanisms and kinetics of degradation. Trendsin Food Science & Technology. 2010;21(1);3-11.