Vol. 2, No. 1 (2015)
Andrographolide is an active compound of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.F) Nees, which was used empirically as medicine plant. This compound was a major constituent that was extracted from Andrographis paniculata (Burm.F) Nees leaves. The aim of this project was to understand the interaction of andrographolide with H5N1 neuraminidase and NF-kappaB at molecular level by docking the compound into the active sites of the macromolecules. The docking method was validated by redocking several known inhibitors into the origin binding pocket of the macromolecules. Scoring calculation, using London dG scoring function, of andrographolide with the DNA binding region of NF-kappaB compared to aurine tricarboxylic and gallic acid are -9.99 kcal/mol, -12.18 kcal/mol, and -12.45 kcal/mol, respectively, while its scoring calculation with H5N1 neuraminidase compared to oseltamivir and zanamivir were -10.04 kcal/mol, -10.84 kcal/mol, and -12.48 kcal/mol, respectively. This study indicates that andrographolide is able to be proposed as inhibitors of NF-kappaB and H5N1 neuraminidase. This compound interacts with H5N1 via hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions. The pharmacophores of andrographolide were the lactone ring and the hydroxyl group.
“Pasak bumi” (Eurycoma longifolia Jack.) has been used traditionally for aphrodisiac, antimalaria, activities as anticancer, antidiabetic, and antihypertension. E. longifolia can be used with synthetic hypertensive drugs like irbesartan. This study was to investigate the diuretic effect of E. longifolia extract and its combination with irbesartan in normal rats, determinate the LD50 value and the toxic effect that influence the organ weight and histopathology of mice.Aqueous extracts of E. longifolia (40mg/kgBB) and its combination with irbesartan (20, 40, 80mg/kgBB) were administered orally to experimental rats strain Sprague Dawley. The concentration of sodium and potassium from urine were measured with AAS. The data was analyzed with ANOVA one way. The acute toxicity test was determinated by Weil method. The dose of combination E. longifolia extract-irbesartan were 1000mg, 2000mg, 4000mg and 8000mg/kg. The observation was carried out in 14 day including clinical signs, percentages of death and histopatology of mice organs.The result showed that all of tested group have significant diuretic activity (p<0.05)compared with control group, there’s no significant difference between single dose extract of E.longifolia (40mg/kgBB) and irbesartan (40mg/kgBB) but the combination of both have lower activity. The combination of E. longifolia extract with irbesartan have LD50 value 23.951g/kg (categorized as non toxic compound). The result of histopathological showed that there’re no significant pathologic effects in the kidney, liver and heart.
Infections through contaminated medical equipments are a serious threat to any patient’s safety and could be dangerous this treatment or may lead to new illness. Sterilization process was a compulsory procedure to ensure sterility of medical equipments where chemical indicators were broadly used to monitor sterilization process. The purpose of this study is to determine the development of internal chemical indicators strips of class IV and V in the steam sterilization in order to obtain good and quality products. Internal chemical indicator strips were able to provide visual verification on products that had passed through the sterilization process, with colour change on the indicator. The stages in this research had also included microbial contamination test Laminar Air Flow (LAF), dosage formulations Sodium Chloride (NaCl) 0.9% infusion, application of internal chemical indicator strips in the moist heat sterilization process and evaluation of NaCl 0.9% infusion that includes sterility test. This study was carried comprising 7 variations of time with data that showed a positive reaction for both indicators with a change of colour after 121 °C of sterilization. Sterility test showed no microbial growth starting from the sterilization time of 10.5 minutes. This research had successfully concluded that internal chemical indicator strips class IV and V were effective on steam sterilization at 121 °C for 10.5 minutes and could be used to monitor the sterilization process.
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Basil is one of medicinal plants in Indonesia that has been used empirically as antimicrobes, analgetic, antiinflammatory, antivirus, antitumor, and antioxidants that prevented ischemia. This research aimed to investigate the effect of adding granule ethanol extract of basil leaves (Ocimum americanum) as antioxidant to capture free radicals in fried foods. The antioxidant activity of ethanol extract of basil leaves with DPPH determinated by IC50, comparing the antioxidant activity of the granule and the control by determination of quality properties of oil and food after frying using Fourier Transfor Infra Red (FTIR) spectra, and quantitative parameters by determination percentage of free fatty acid (FFA). Results of maceration with ethanol 15.94% w/w, total ash content 9.85%, water soluble ash content 3.98%, acid insoluble ash content 3.98%, water soluble extract 25.89%, ethanol soluble extract 12.76%, water content 6.87%, drying shrinkage 11.19%. Testing the antioxidant activity of the ethanol extract of basil leaves with DPPH gave IC50 of 80.55 ppm. The result of antioxidant testing by determination percentage of FFA statistically with ANOVA (significance 0.00<5) and comparison of the concentration extract in basil granule with LSD test significantly different. The result indicates that adding ethanol extract of granules basil on fried foods gave antioxidant activity because it can inhibit the increasing of FFA percentage.
Tetes mata sulfasetamidayang mengandung natrium sulfasetamida 10%, 15%, dan 30% telah dibuat dan disterilkan. Metode sterilisasi yang digunakan adalah uap air mengalir 98-100 oC, penyaring bakteri, dan autoklaf 120-121 oC selama 15 menit. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mendapatkan sediaan yang paling stabil selama penyimpanan 28 hari. Semua sediaan diamati kejernihan, pH dan konsentrasi natrium sulfasetamida.Semua sediaan mengalami kenaikan pH. Kekeruhan terjadi pada sediaan yang disterilkan dengan autoklaf. Sediaan paling stabil adalah tetes mata yang mengandung natrium sulfasetamid 10% yang disterilisasi dengan penyaring bakteri.